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越南越南红河断裂活动性研究(四)

发布时间:2019-05-10 浏览数:192
 3.2地震活动与形变观测

通过赴越南考察交流,我们收集到了越南自公元1272年以来的历史地震目录、20世纪有仪器观测以来的地震目录和20世纪90年代中国台湾中央大学蔡义本教授在越南北部沿红河断裂带架设的18个临时数字地震观测站所记录到的小震目录(吴幸鸿,2002),相关研究结果将另文发表。根据以上资料,越南红河断裂历史记载最大地震为5.3级。初步分析表明,越南红河断裂带地震活动总体上延续了云南境内弥渡以南段的特征,即地震活动频次低、震级小。而中国台湾中央大学临时台网的监测结果显示尤其突出的现象是,在红河断裂展布的越南北部地区相对断裂两侧地区而言,似乎越靠近红河断裂带,地震活动的频次越低、震级也越小。

此外,根据1963,1983年2期跨越南红河断裂三角测量和1994,1996,1998,2000年4期GPS观测及处理结果,显示前者由于断裂活动微弱和观测精度所限,在95%可信区间内越南红河断裂的右旋滑动速率近乎为零,而GPS观测数据处理结果则表明越南红河断裂右旋滑动速率<2mm/a( Feigl et al..,203),与云南境内红河断裂东南段的GPS观测及处理结果相当(吕江宁等,2003),2种方法总体上都显示了越南红河断裂的现今弱活动特征。

更值得注意的是,近年来中国围绕青藏高原及包括红河断裂在内的周边地区开展的GPS地壳形变观测,其结果越来越清晰地反映川滇块体存在顺时针旋转(张培震等,2001,200,2004),特别是跨云南境内红河断裂中南段的顺时针旋转和非刚性连续变形特征。这对多年来把川滇块体作为整体向SSE方向运动,并且以红河断裂带为活动块体西南边界的认识提出了挑战。而红河断裂云南中、南段直至越南境内数百千米范围晚第四纪以来的弱活动,在莺歌海盆地北部地区地震剖面中红河断裂带均未切过5.5MaBP的不整合面(詹文欢等,2003),看来也不支持其整体上作为现代活动块体边界的地位。

3.3可能的大地构造和深部构造原因

红河断裂带在新构造运动早期有过大规模左旋走滑的认识已经得到广泛接受。其动力学模式显然应当包含印度板块沿滇缅弧向东俯冲和以红河断裂带为西边界的扬子准地台“中流砥柱”的因素。而红河断裂带在后期转为右旋走滑,其最直接和主要的原因已经转变为印度板块持续向北推挤一青藏高原强烈压缩抬升一侧向挤出一旋转变形过程而派生的新的动力来源。如果上述认识是正确的,那么这还暗示着红河断裂带在时间和空间上持续的右旋走滑必须要求断裂东侧的川滇块体具备向SSE方向运动的所谓“能动性”!诸如川滇块体壳内、壳幔的拆离条件和东边界小江断裂的解锁条件等。但事实恰恰相反,“川滇块体”本身实际上包含了若干在发育历史、地壳结构、介质物理力学性质等方面明显不同的大地构造单元,尤其是滇中一带被称为“康滇地轴”的扬子地台区对整个川滇块体向SSE方向的运动应当起到强有力的阻挡作用(马宗晋等,2001)。大量地震层析成像、人工地震测深以及震源参数研究结果均表明,处于扬子准地台的滇中地区地壳平均速度明显高于其周边块体(胡鸿翔等,1993;黄金莉等,2001;王椿镛等,202;胥颐等,2003;周庆连等,2008),并具有突出的刚性变形特征(张建国等,1993)。因此,我们推测来自青藏高原压缩、抬升、向东挤出的动力作用在受到稳定的四川盆地的阻挡后,围绕东喜马拉雅构造结转为向SSE方向的推挤,之后在扬子地块的阻挡调节下,再转为向SW方向跨红河断裂中、南段的推挤和变形。在此模式下,越南红河断裂的右旋走滑活动必然受到很大限制。

 

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STUDY ON THE ACTIVITY OF RED RIVER

FAULT IN VIETNAM

ZHANG Jian-guo1,2)  HUANGFU Gang. 2)  XIE Ying-qing 2)

PHAN Trong Trin3)   LIU Na2)

1)School of Earth and Space, Uninersity of Seience and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China

2)Earthquake Administration of Yunan Prowince, Kunming 650224, China

3)Institute of Geological Science,Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology,

Hanoi,Vietnam

 

Abstract

Correlated   evidences  about  the newest activity of Red River Fault in Vietnam( RRFV), such  as  seismicity, geology, geomorphology and   chronology  etc, have  been  obtained  through  joint  survey  along  the  fault  in  Vietnam.  Our  comprehensive  studies  demonstrate that, the  same   tendency  of  gradual weak ening of the fault activity from north to south in the part of China since Quaternary has been keet  on  in  Vietnam. The  primary active period of Red River Fault in Vietnam is in late of middle Pleistocene and in general, the active level of  Red River Fault is lower promine ntly than that in Yunnan, China especially, the activity of RRFV has been very weak since late Pleistocene. The synthesized analysis on seismicity and regional GPS  deformation  monitoring  data  indicates  that  the  dynamic  impact  of  so  called  lateralex  trusion  from  Tibetan  Plateau  on  the  dextral  slip  of  RRFV  should be  very  limited. Fur-thermore, the  possible reasons  including  geotectonic  and  deep  crustal  structure  have  been  discussed  in  the  article.

 

Key words Red River Fault in Vietnam, active period, accumulated displacement, geoleeto deep crustal structure